To advance beyond the persistent 70%+ failure rates of IT platforms despite increasing sophistication of IT, we developed the foundational basis of the knowledge management as a discipline of systemic risk management for environments characterized by radical discontinuous change. Consequent materially significant events in our framework are not only highly improbable but also highly unpredictable based on the traditional logic and methods for prediction based upon historical data. In the aftermath of the global financial crisis of 2007-2008, such highly improbable events have been popularized as 'black swans' as named after a business best-seller of the same name. This functional paradigm is the first to develop deep holistic (based on 'systems thinking') and dynamic (based on 'system dynamics') understanding about the people-process-technology relationships for business performance and has withstood the test of time. As 'IT' becomes more of a commodity and endowed with more complex 'potential' capabilities, there is need for re-focusing on strategic execution. As we transition from an era of information scarcity to information glut, there is need for re-focusing on human sense-making processes underlying decisions, choices, and performance. In this new paradigm for increasingly uncertain and complex business environments, dynamically evolving performance outcomes are the key drivers of how 'smart minds' use 'smart technologies' to leverage strategic opportunities and challenges.
Related Knowledge Management Resources
Downloadable Seminars in Knowledge Management
WWW Virtual Library on Knowledge Management and KMNetwork
Title and Summary
- ManagementFirst, Knowledge Management: Rethinking Management for the New World of Uncertainty and Risk, An interview with Dr. Yogesh Malhotra , ManagementFirst, Knowledge Management Feature of the Month, April 2005, Emerald Publishing.(HTML version)
How 'real' knowledge management can save not only the failing model of systems performance but also the failing model of management originally devised for the industrial economy. Widely recognized as a knowledge management pioneer, in this extensive interview with Emerald Publishing's Alistair Craven read what Dr. Yogesh Malhotra, the Founder of Global Risk Management Network, has to say about knowledge, information, technology, and chasing success in this field.
Keywords: knowledge management, real intelligence, knowledge economy, information economy, post-industrial economy, industrial economy, trends, forecasts, management control, command and control, information systems failures, information systems success, information systems performance, business performance, change management, radical discontinuous change, Global Risk Management Network, consulting, practice, research, theory, financial markets
- Malhotra, Y., Integrating Knowledge Management Technologies in Organizational Business Processes: Getting Real Time Enterprises to Deliver Real Business Performance , Special Issue on Knowledge Management and Technology, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 9, Issue 1, April 2005, 7-28. (PDF version)
The first comprehensive analysis relating knowledge management and its integration into enterprise business processes for achieving agility and adaptability often associated with the "real time enterprise" business models. It constitutes critical knowledge for organizations that must depend on information and communication technologies for increasing strategic agility and adaptability.
Tom Stewart once remarked in Fast Company magazine: "Technologists never evangelize without a disclaimer: "Technology is just an enabler." True enough -- and the disclaimer discloses part of the problem: Enabling what? One flaw in knowledge management is that it often neglects to ask what knowledge to manage and toward what end. Knowledge management activities are all over the map: Building databases, measuring intellectual capital, establishing corporate libraries, building intranets, sharing best practices, installing groupware, leading training programs, leading cultural change, fostering collaboration, creating virtual organizations -- all of these are knowledge management, and every functional and staff leader can lay claim to it. But no one claims the big question: Why?" The analysis in this article answers that big question:Why?
- Malhotra, Y.; Dennis F.; and, Kirsch, L.J. How Endogenous Motivations Influence User Intentions: Beyond the Dichotomy of Extrinsic and Intrinsic User Motivations, Journal of Management Information Systems, Summer, 2008, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 267-299. (PDF version)
(Journal of Management Information Systems )
Information technology (IT) adoption research recognizes theoretical limitations in discerning if and when user behavior results from perceived external influences or from personal volition. A clear understanding of this issue requires a precise distinction between mandatory and volitional behaviors. Consistent with organ-ismic integration theory (OIT), this study situates the locus of user motivations inside the user. Drawing upon an endogenous view of behaviors, this research makes three key contributions. First, it develops the theoretical basis for clearly discerning if and when behavior results from perceived external influences or from personal volition. Specifi cally, it examines how endogenous psychological feelings of autonomy, free-dom, confl ict, and external pressure can predict and explain user intentions. Second, it proposes that behavior may result from combinations of perceived external influences and personal volition. Recognizing how such "collections of motivations" together influence behavior advances our understanding beyond the "dichotomy" of extrinsic versus intrinsic motivations often adopted in prior research. Third, it proposes that some desired behaviors may be thwarted or impeded by a confl ict between perceived external influences and personal volition.
- Malhotra, Y. and Galletta, Dennis F., A Multidimensional Commitment Model of Volitional Systems Adoption and Usage Behavior, Journal of Management Information Systems, Summer, 2005, Vol. 22, No. 1; 117-151 (PDF version)
(Journal of Management Information Systems )
Survey after survey of information systems, knowledge management, and CRM systems indicates that user commitment is one of the most critical factors behind success of such systems. However, design and execution of such systems based upon textbook definitions of management suited for the assembly line production and industrial management economy is unsuitable for knowledge professions and knowledge workers. For knowledge work and knowledge professions, management must not be interpreted as control and managerial compliance must be the last item on the list of managers' socio-technical strategies for seeking system user commitment. This scientific research paper with high impact pragmatic implications offers managers and researchers a methodology to conceptualize and measure system user commitment and understand how to apply it to see if managerial strategies trying to seek user commitment are really succeeding.
- Malhotra, Y. and Galletta, Dennis F., Building Systems That Users Want to Use, Communications of the ACM, Volume 47, Number 12 (December, 2004), pp. 88-94. (PDF version)
(Communications of the ACM )
The debate around Carr's controversial article "IT Doesn't Matter"  reveals that the opposing arguments depend upon one critical shared premise. Neither of the opposing camps can ignore the fact the business performance of IT derives not from IT investments alone (that is, if IT matters) but depends on whether and how IT is used [1, 2, 11]. The causal links between IT and productivity depicted in macro-economic , firm-level , and country-level  research ultimately depend upon system-level use by motivated and committed users. Neither of these analyses can ignore the fact that usage behaviors finally determine if the systems are effectively used, misused, abused, or not used at all . Hence, it is time to move beyond the rhetoric on "Does IT Matter?" to a more pragmatic and precise understanding of how the business performance of IT systems depends upon their effective usage (for more articles on this topic, see www.ITUse.com). Given the current emphasis on doing more with less, managers should also recognize that a firm's direct investments in IT may not correlate with the business performance of IT.
- Malhotra, Y., Desperately Seeking Self-Determination: Key to the New Enterprise Logic of Customer Relationships, Customer Relationship Management Mini-track. Proceedings of the Americas Conference on Information Systems, New York, New York, August, 2004, pp. 1-8. (PDF version)
(Proceedings of the 10th Americas Conference on Information Systems, New York, New York, August, 2004)
A growing 'chasm' separates consumers and the adversarial buyer-seller practices of commerce. CRM systems focusing on maximizing transaction values are "ultimately doomed." In response, Zuboff and Maxmin (2002) have outlined the contours of the new enterprise logic based upon "relationship economics." Their paradigm recognizes the critical need for satisfying 'new' consumers' needs for psychological self-determination while treating them as the origin of all value. This research develops theory-based empirical understanding of their core concept of "psychological self-determination" that is central to the new enterprise logic of customer relationships. By situating the proposed construct within technology acceptance research, we outline how future CRM implementation research can benefit from better understanding about consumers' perceptions and behaviors. The theoretical construct and proposed measures are empirically validated in an organizational implementation of a communication, collaboration, and coordination system. Directions for extending this research to design and implementation of new CRM systems are offered.
- Expertise Management: New Myths and Old Realities (Dr. Yogesh Malhotra's Interview with CIO Insight )
Don't get overly confused by similar sounding acronyms such as expertise location management (ELM) systems, knowledge management systems, electronic yellow pages, corporate yellow pages, or the good old fashioned 'directory.' At the very basic functional level, they are all essentially same: means for storing and sharing specific data and information for a specific audience. Also, at the same functional level, regardless of the name given to them, the same issues of user motivation and commitment essentially determine their success or failure. User commitment and user motivation are the core issues that will ultimately determine if high quality data, information, and knowledge are shared or used or are even created to begin with.
- Malhotra, Y., Measuring National Knowledge Assets of a Nation: Knowledge Systems for Development Expert Background Paper for the Expanding Public Space for the Development of the Knowledge Society: Report of the Ad Hoc Expert Group Meeting on Knowledge Systems for Development, 4-5 September 2003, Department of Economic and Social Affairs Division for Public Administration and Development Management, United Nations, New York, 2003, pp. 68-126.
(United Nations Sponsored Project: Research Paper, Keynote, Expert Panel Discussion)
This report documents the first known comprehensive review of various indices, metrics, and assessment techniques related to the knowledge economy and knowledge society used by countries and nations across the world. The critical review of the indices, metrics, and assessment techniques proposed over the last century reveals that many of the existing metrics and measurement techniques have been defined for the local or national factory-based model of disjoint industrial economies. However, a global knowledge based information economy and service economy that defy the traditional boundaries of time and space require a reassessment of many of these indices, metrics, and techniques. A methodology based upon the balanced scorecard is also developed to help governments as well as public and private enterprises devise, develop, assess, and manage knowledge management implementations
in a step-by-step manner.
- Malhotra, Y., Is Knowledge the Ultimate Competitive Advantage?, Business Management Asia, September, 2003, Q3/4, pp. 66-69. PDF Print Version
(Interview with Business Management Asia)
A review of the state of knowledge management across the continents suggests growing popularity of this phenomenon across countries, nations, corporations, institutions, and organizations of the world. It is however important to distinguish it from the 'IT-based solutions' mentality that caused an unsurprising backlash in the United States business and technology corporate sectors. Premium on the latest and most reliable knowledge needed for corporate agility and proactive change management has many technologists increasingly frustrated in trying to devise an 'in-the-box' 'IT-based solution.' What is critical though is 'out-of-box' thinking that can help you realize that data, information, and knowledge are only as valuable as their role in realizing efficient and effective performance outcomes that you expected. Most importantly, don't forget the people while you are lost in semantics!
- Malhotra, Y., Why Knowledge Management Systems Fail?: Enablers and Constraints of Knowledge Management in Human Enterprises, In Holsapple, C.W. (Ed.), Handbook on Knowledge Management 1: Knowledge Matters, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 577-599, 2004.
(ASIST Monograph Series and The Knowledge Management Handbook, CNet Corporate Computing Award)
Drawing upon lessons learned from the biggest failure of knowledge management in recent world history ("9/11" Destruction of the New York City) and the debacle of the 'new economy' enterprises, this article explains why knowledge management systems (KMS) fail and how risk of such failures may be minimized. The key thesis is that enablers of KMS designed for the 'knowledge factory' engineering paradigm often unravel and become constraints in adapting and evolving such systems for business environments characterized by high uncertainty and radical discontinuous change. Design of KMS should ensure that adaptation and innovation of business performance outcomes occurs in alignment with changing dynamics of the business environment. Simultaneously, conceiving multiple future trajectories of the information technology and human inputs embedded in the KMS can diminish the risk of rapid obsolescence of such systems.
- Malhotra, Y., The Knowledge Application Gap In Information Systems Research And Education: And Their Quest For The Dependent Variable, In Information Resources Management Journal, Apr-Jun 2003.Vol.16, Iss. 2, pp. 1-7. PDF version
In the absence of innovative approaches that may have the potential for advancing knowledge, learning, pedagogy, and methodologies, the IRM and IS disciplines may just wither away, having outlasted their utility. It is imperative for the pallbearers of these withering disciplines to realize that innovation, especially in face of uncertainty, is inherently risky. But, do we have another option for resuscitating these disciplines of knowledge that we so cherish? By avoiding uncertainty at the risk of compromising on innovations would we be truly serving the cause of these disciplines? It does not seem to be an altogether altruistic cause, as the future survival and competence of most professional practitioners of pedagogy and research in these disciplines may hinge upon this issue. Increasingly uncertain environments encountered by the latest generation of complex business technology systems require that IS research and education make concerted efforts in addressing such issues. Markedly wicked environments (Churchman, 1971; Mason & Mitroff, 1973) that threaten the survival, competence, and success of organizational systems impose the need for evolving the IRM and IS disciplines for standing up to the challenge of the interesting times ahead.
Malhotra, Y. and Galletta, D., "Role of Commitment and Motivation in Knowledge Management Systems Implementation: Theory, Conceptualization, and Measurement of Antecedents of Success," Proceedings of 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, January 6-9, 2003, IEEE, pp. 1-10.
- Malhotra, Y. and Galletta, D., Role of Commitment and Motivation in Knowledge Management Systems Implementation: Theory, Conceptualization, and Measurement of Antecedents of Success, Proceedings of 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, January 6-9, 2003, IEEE, pp. 1-10.
(Proceedings of Hawaii Conference on Information Systems) (PDF Version)
Unlike transaction focused and rule-governed mechanistic systems, the new generation of systems for communication, collaboration, and coordination are increasingly dependent upon users' motivation and commitment. However, mechanistic models for 'controlling' human behavior designed for the assembly line factory model and discussed in many management text books may be most damaging to cultivating and sustaining motivation and commitment. A clearer understanding of employee motivation and commitment is therefore necessary for the success of any knowledge-dependent organization or knowledge-based system.
- Malhotra, Y., When Best [Practices] Becomes Worst, Momentum: The Quality Magazine of Australasia, Quality Society of Australasia, Australia, September 2002, pp. 30-31.
(Momentum: The Quality Magazine of Australasia, Quality Society of Australasia, Australia, September 2002, pp. 30-31.
(Momentum: The Quality Magazine of Australasia, Quality Society of Australasia, NSW, Australia)
"Any competitive advantage is transitory -- given the changing dynamics of the environment, the industry and the competition. What is "best" today may be "worst" tomorrow depending upon the shift in the references that determined its "best-ness." Hence, the need for ongoing reassessment [of the currency of best practices]. [Need evidence? Recall the stories of the roller coaster fortunes of many 'new economy' companies and some of the long lasting 'old economy' companies that ceased to survive!]"
- Knowledge Management: The Supply Chain Nerve Center, Inside Supply Management, Institute for Supply Management, July 2002, pp. 34-43.
(Cover Story Focus on Dr. Yogesh Malhotra's Interview with Inside Supply Management, Institute for Supply Management)
This interview with the flagship publication of the Institute of Supply Management clearly lays out the fundamental problems responsible for failure of most knowledge management and supply chain management technology implementations. The 'models of failure' blindly adopted and applied by companies resulting in systems implementation turmoil are contrasted with 'models of success' that have proven to succeed phenomenally in the benchmark companies. The practices of the benchmark organizations (world's largest retailer and world's largest computer retailer) demonstrate a deeper understanding of strategic and socio-psychological contexts of systems implementation than others (such as the world's largest semiconductor company) that put their faith primarily in technology implementation with little regard to these issues.
- Malhotra, Y., Information Ecology and Knowledge Management: Toward Knowledge Ecology for Hyperturbulent Organizational Environments, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) 2002, UNESCO/Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK.
(Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) 2002, UNESCO/Eolss Publishers, Oxford,UK.)
The author's opening day keynote presentation at the Knowledge Ecology Fair by some of the world's top KM visionaries and thinkers motivated original thinking in this article. A subsequent review of Davenport and Prusak's work on Information Ecology suggested the need for extending the understanding beyond their primary focus on information technologies and information ecology. The extension from information ecology to knowledge ecology demonstrates how strategic understanding for 'anticipation of surprise' inherent in (external) discontinuous changes is necessary for the success of any implemented systems. Also, socio-psychological understanding of how information becomes 'knowledge in action' is offered to suggest how to develop and sustain the 'loose-tight' systems necessary for adaptability and agility.
- Malhotra, Y., Enabling Knowledge Exchanges for E-Business Communities, Information Strategy: The Executive's Journal, 18(3), Spring 2002, pp. 26-31.
(Information Strategy: The Executive's Journal)
Many practitioners and academics focused on the geographical concept of national culture seem oblivious to a more important concept of culture relevant to success of information- and knowledge-based organizations and online global communities. The online cultures evident in many online communities, old and new, seem to suggest the need for a balance between information-processing and sense-making capabilities of such collaborative communities. While archival, transmission, and search of stored information is enabled by information technologies, sharing and creation of knowledge depends upon the 'culture' of the community. How combining both effectively can enable knowledge communities and knowledge exchanges is the focus of this article.
- Malhotra, Y., Expert Systems for Knowledge Management: Crossing the Chasm Between Information Processing and Sense Making, Expert Systems With Applications: An International Journal, 20(1), 7-16, 2001.
(Expert Systems With Applications: An International Journal)
Common sense suggests that knowledge management technologies should have properties that clearly distinguish them from data- and information-processing technologies. Common sense also suggests that creation and sharing of knowledge depends upon non-technological factors in the strategic and sociological contexts that can enable or disable such technologies. However, IT practitioners who chose not to pay attention to such common sense ended up buying the silicon snake oil sold by some IT analysts and vendors. Executives who chose to assume that 'information processing' is same as 'sense making' are finally responsible for such decisions regardless of who sold them what. This article explains how the capabilities of even the most 'intelligent' technologies -- artificial intelligence and expert systems -- are limited in absence of 'sense making' capabilities. Reminds one of the adage that 'artificial intelligence' is no match for 'real stupidity'.
- Intellectual Capitalism: Does KM=IT? Three Myths That Can Derail Your KM Investments, CIO Enterprise, Sep. 15, 1999.
(Interview of Dr. Yogesh Malhotra with CIO Enterprise Magazine)
"Knowledge Management is in danger of being perceived as so seamlessly entwined with technology that its true critical success factors will be lost in the pleasing hum of servers, software and pipes. Three myths that can derail your KM efforts are: i) Knowledge management technologies deliver the right information to the right person at the right time; ii) Information technologies can store human intelligence and experience; (iii) Information technologies can distribute human intelligence."
- Malhotra, Y., Knowledge Management for E-Business Performance: Advancing Information Strategy to "Internet Time", Information Strategy: The Executive's Journal, 16(4), Summer, 2000, pp. 5-16.
(Information Strategy: The Executive's Journal)
"The corporate world has seen the emergence of interest in knowledge management and adoption of the term by information technology vendors and industry solution providers. However, despite the popularity of the buzzword, most such implementations have been based on an outdated business model and related information-processing view. the news of the death of knowledge management is highly exaggerated. What is needed is better and more accurate understanding of knowledge management as enabler of information strategy for the e-world of business."
- Malhotra, Y., Is Knowledge Management Really an Oxymoron? Unraveling the Role of Organizational Controls in Knowledge Management, In D. White (Ed.), Knowledge Mapping and Management, Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing, 2002, pp. 1-13.
(Knowledge Mapping and Management)
The conundrum that has befuddled many executives, practitioners, and researchers is how can you manage something that you cannot control. In this case, if you cannot control knowledge that resides in human brains, how can you manage it becomes an unsolvable problem. This gave rise to what the author considers the 'myth' of knowledge management being an oxymoron, as it seemed to suggest management of something that is inherently unmanageable. This article dissects this issue and explains the problem is not with 'knowledge' but with the prevalent understanding about what 'management' means. Most management texts have defined and explained management in terms of control exerted by managers. That concept worked fine for the industrial economy, but it has already outlasted its utility. Don't mistaken 'management' for 'control', and then knowledge management would make perfect sense. Remember, 'to manage' is not necessarily 'to control.'
- Malhotra, Y., Organizational Controls as Enablers and Constraints in Successful Knowledge Management Systems Implementation, In Y. Malhotra (Ed.), Knowledge Management and Business Model Innovation. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing, 2001, p. 326-336.
(Knowledge Management and Business Model Innovation)
Managerial understanding of leadership and organizational controls is critical for creating the right understanding necessary for the success of knowledge management implementations. In its absence, prevailing dangerous myths that equate management with (the myth of being in) control can degrade corporate health and threaten corporate survival. Managers who are used to the management control paradigm of information systems originally developed for the first generation of accounting systems need to grapple with a new understanding of control required for knowledge management systems. Here, the art and science are in managing by giving up control rather than in exerting control that is based upon outdated assumptions and the dominant logic of the firm that has outlasted its utility. Don't mistaken 'management' for 'control', and then knowledge management would make perfect sense. Remember, 'to manage' is not necessarily 'to control.'
- Virtual Corporations, Human Issues & Information Technology
(Interview of Dr. Yogesh Malhotra with American Society for Training and Development, Special issue 'On Becoming Virtual')
This interview explains the issues of trust, control and performance within the context of virtual organizations. Discussion also covers what can organizations do about such issues, including helping employees cope with rapid changes in technology, knowledge work and organization structure. It is suggested that cultivation of trust and the requisite organizational culture is necessary prerequisite for developing virtual communities of practice.
- Knowledge Management, Knowledge Organizations & Knowledge Workers
(Interview of Dr. Yogesh Malhotra with Maeil Business Newspaper (South Korea))
"The 'new world of business' is characterized by high levels of uncertainty and inability to predict the future. Use of the information and control systems and compliance with pre- defined goals, objectives and best practices may not necessarily achieve long-term organizational competence. This is the world of 're-everything,' which challenges the assumptions underlying the 'accepted way of doing things.' This world needs the capability to understand the problems afresh given the changing environmental conditions. The focus is not only on finding the right answers but on finding the right questions."
- Malhotra, Y., Deciphering the Knowledge Management Hype', Journal for Quality & Participation, July-August, 1998. A different version of the same article also published in Hewlett-Packard Executive Intelligence, and Asian Strategy Leadership Institute Review under the title Knowledge Management for the New World of Business.
(Journal for Quality & Participation, Hewlett-Packard Executive Intelligence, and Asian Strategy Leadership Institute Review)
"The new world of business imposes the need for variety and complexity of interpretations of information outputs generated by computer systems. Such variety is necessary for deciphering the multiple worldviews of the uncertain and unpredictable future. Strategies for surviving in the the new world of business cannot be 'predicted' based on a 'static' picture of information residing in the company's databases or individual mindsets. Rather, such strategies will depend upon developing interpretive flexibility based upon diverse and multiple interpretations of the future. In this perspective, the objective of business strategy is not to indulge in long-term planning of the future, at least in the traditional sense. It will be necessary to plan, but expect all plans will need a high level of adaptability and flexibility as they are challenged by changing dynamics of the business environment, changing market trends, and, shifting competitive landscapes."
- Malhotra, Y., Knowledge Management for Organizational White-Waters: An Ecological Framework, Knowledge Management, March 1999, pp. 18-21
"The traditional view of knowledge management has treated knowledge in terms of prepackaged or taken-for-granted interpretation of information. However, this static and acontextual knowledge works against the generation of multiple and contradictory viewpoints that are necessary for meeting the challenge posed by wicked environments. As illustrated by case studies of companies that have relied on this concept of knowledge, it may even hamper the organizational learning and adaptive capabilities. The wicked environment of the new world of business imposes the need for variety and complexity of the interpretations of information. Such interpretations are necessary for deciphering the multiple world views of the uncertain and unpredictable future."
- Malhotra, Y., How to Enable Next Generation e-Business Architectures for Business Transformation, Expert Paper, Intel Corporation, June 2001.
(Intel Corporation Sponsored e-Business Architecture Paper)
"A business environment characterized by rapid and radical change puts a premium on continuous business model innovation to deliver novel, sustainable and competitively viable customer value propositions. Not surprisingly, top executives are demanding better justification for investments in e-Business technology infrastructures and expected business performance outcomes. They realize that the next generation e-Business models must be based on ongoing innovation of business value propositions and extended inter-enterprise value chains. Many of them want to know how investments in new e-Business technology architectures and solutions would contribute to the adaptability of their businesses to unprecedented and rapid pace of change."
- Malhotra, Y., Knowledge Management and New Organization Forms: A Framework for Business Model Innovation, Information Resources Management Journal, 13(1), January-March, 2000, pp. 5-14.
(Information Resources Management Journal)
"The concept of knowledge management is not new in information systems practice and research. However, radical changes in the business environment have suggested limitations of the traditional information-processing view of knowledge management. New business environments are characterized not only by rapid pace of change, but also discontinuous nature of such change. The new business environment, characterized by dynamically discontinuous change, requires a re-conceptualization of knowledge management as it has been understood in information systems practice and research. The knowledge management framework presented in this article will facilitate business model innovation necessary for sustainable competitive advantage in the new business environment characterized by dynamic, discontinuous and radical pace of change."
- Malhotra, Y., Knowledge Assets in the Global Economy: Assessment of National Intellectual Capital, Journal of Global Information Management, 8(3), July-Sep, 2000, pp. 5-15.
(Journal of Global Information Management)
"Transition of most developing and developed nations to knowledge economies has resulted in an increasing awareness of 'knowledge' as a key lever for economic growth and performance. With increasing emphasis on aligning national information resource planning, design and implementation with growth and performance needs of business or nation, better understanding of new valuation and assessment techniques is necessary for information resource management policymakers, practitioners and researchers."
- Malhotra, Y., From Information Management to Knowledge Management: Beyond the 'Hi-Tech Hidebound Systems', In K. Srikantaiah & M.E.D. Koenig (Eds.), Knowledge Management for the Information Professional. Medford, N.J.: Information Today Inc. (American Society for Information Science and Technology Monograph Series), 2000, pp. 37-61.
(ASIST Monograph Series and The Knowledge Management Handbook)
"The mainstream model of knowledge management systems based on the information-processing view is problematic because of its focus on premature convergence of problem definitions and related solutions. Effectiveness of such systems is constrained by the rapid and discontinuous change that characterizes new organizational environments. The prevailing knowledge management paradigm limits itself by its emphasis on convergence and consensus-oriented processing of information. The organizations' strategic needs for creating [and re-creating] new knowledge can be met by a synergy between data- and information-processing capabilities of advanced information technologies and innovative and creative capabilities latent in their human members."
Malhotra, Y. and Galletta, D., "Extending the Technology Acceptance Model to Account for Social Influence: Theoretical Bases and Empirical Validation," Proceedings of 32nd Annual Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, January, 1999, IEEE, pp. 1-14.
- Malhotra, Y. and Galletta, D., Extending the Technology Acceptance Model to Account for Social Influence: Theoretical Bases and Empirical Validation, Proceedings of 32nd Annual Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, January, 1999, IEEE, pp. 1-14.
(Proceedings of Hawaii Conference on Information Systems) (PDF Version)
The Technology Acceptance Model is incomplete in one important respect: it doesn't account for social influence in the adoption and utilization of new information systems. The construct denoting social influences based on the Theory of Reasoned Action has theoretical and psychometric problems. Specifically, it is difficult to distinguish if usage behavior is caused by the influence of referents on one's intent or by one's own attitude. This problem may be circumvented by using an alternative theoretical basis for conceptualizing social influences specifically in terms of Kelman's processes of social influence (compliance, identification and internalization). Within the context of organizational enterprisewide implementation and adoption of collaboration and communication technologies, this study establishes theoretical and empirical bases for the above conceptualization originally suggested by Davis and his colleagues. The construct of social influence is operationalized in terms of Kelman's processes of internalization, identification and compliance. Analyses of field study data provide evidence of the reliability and validity of the proposed constructs, factor structures and measures. The findings enable future researchers to account for social influence in further investigating tecnology acceptance.
- Malhotra, Y., Knowledge Management in Inquiring Organizations, Proceedings of the 3rd Americas Conference on Information Systems, August 1997, 293-295.
(Proceedings of 3rd Americas Conference on Information Systems)
"Knowledge management solutions characterized by memorization of 'best practices' may tend to define the assumptions that are embedded not only in information databases, but also in the organization's strategy, reward systems and resource allocation systems. The hardwiring of such assumptions in organizational knowledge bases may lead to perceptual insensitivity of the organization to the changing environment. Institutionalization of 'best practices' by embedding them in information technology might facilitate efficient handling of routine, 'linear,' and predictable situations during stable or incrementally changing environments. However, when this change is discontinuous, there is a persistent need for continuous renewal of the basic premises underlying the 'best practices' stored in organizational knowledge bases."
- Malhotra, Y., Business Process Redesign: An Overview, IEEE Engineering Management Review, 26(3), Fall, 1998, 27-31.
(IEEE Engineering Management Review)
An overview of key BPR concepts covering questions regarding BPR, Processes, Myths about BPR, Relation between BPR and information technology, Role of IS function in BPR, BPR Methodology, Failure of BPR Projects, and Future of BPR.
- Malhotra, Y., It's Time to Cultivate Growth: KM Rules, Insight, British Telecom, UK, February 2001.
((British Telecom, UK))
"Technology provides part of the answer, certainly. But not all of it. A successful knowledge management strategy combines the power of IT with the creative and innovative capacity of your own people. You must nourish creative and innovative capacity in your staff - your resource for constant, rapid response to changing customer and market trends. Our ever-changing environment demands a major attitude overhaul: the focus must be on leveraging the entrepreneurial spirit of your people and keeping your structure agile to thrive on the edge of chaos."
- Malhotra, Y., What's the Big Idea? Knowledge and the Future - Anticipating Surprises, Knowledge Inc. - The Executive Report on Knowledge, Technology & Performance, Millennium Issue, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2000.
"The newly empowered human will live in a world of immense choice that may often imply living with immense risks and immense returns. The knowledge worker's choice of 'what to do', 'where to do', and 'when to do' in the 'anything, anytime, anywhere' economy will result from incarnation of what we currently know as flexwork, telework and virtual knowledge work. The choice will not be easy for most who have been traditionally ensconced in the increasingly mythical shell of stability and security as they suddenly find that they are traveling at warp speed into a future of infinite choices. The feeling will be simultaneously exhilarating and unnerving: the joy of freedom to choose blended with the apprehension of making one's own choices and having to live with them."
- Malhotra, Y., Enterprise Architecture: An Overview
(Online Draft Document)
"This article discusses Enterprise Architectures as they relate to the broad decisions that must be made by an organization as it creates its organizational information support system. The concept of Enterprise Architecture has been defined and discussed variously in extant articles in practitioner and research publications. This article attempts to take a holistic view of diverse interpretations. It attempts to frame the understanding of Knowledge Architectures (discussed in later articles) within preliminary understanding about Strategic Capabilities Architecture, Business Architecture, Information Architecture, Data Architecture, Systems Architecture, and, Computer Architecture."
- Role of Information Technology in Managing Organizational Change and Organizational Interdependence
"The rate and magnitude of change are rapidly outpacing the complex of theories -- economic, social, and philosophical - - on which public and private decisions are based. To the extent that we continue to view the world from the perspective of an earlier, vanishing age, we will continue to misunderstand the developments surrounding the transition to an information society, be unable to realize the full economic and social potential of this revolutionary technology, and risk making some very serious mistakes as reality and the theories we use to interpret it continue to diverge."
- Malhotra, Y., Organizational Learning and Learning Organizations
(Online Draft Document)
"The key is not getting the right strategy but fostering strategic thinking" as the organizations and managers are "faced with dramatic changes and unpredictability" which require emphasis on fostering learning rather than devising plans. Essentially, learning organizations and managers learn from their experiences rather than being bound by their past experiences. Accordingly, the information systems that are intended to facilitate knowledge management need to designed so that they do not straitjacket the knowledge processes that are critical for survival in the new world of uncertainty and risk.
- Malhotra, Y., Current Business Concerns and Knowledge Management
(Interviews with the Times of India, and Russian periodical JetInfo)
This set of interviews explains what will be critical concerns of leading organizations in a knowledge-based society; how companies can apply Knowledge Management in practice; how the emerging management and technology issues are relevant to both developed and developing countries in the context of a global knowledge market.
- Malhotra, Y., An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Information Systems Productivity and the Role of Outsourcing Policy
(Online Working Paper)
Information Systems (IS) outsourcing policies define the criteria that organizations utilize to decide upon the scope and degree of reliance of their IS capabilities upon external sources. Financial considerations and business strategy are the two major determinants of the IS outsourcing decision. Most controversy on outsourcing of IS has been around the issue of increasing performance - generally by reducing costs and improving service. In this context, the study of the interrelationships between IS outsourcing policy, the business and financial strategy considerations and IS productivity, is increasingly relevant for providing a more balanced perspective to the ongoing debate. The study has important implications regarding the reliability of the new measure of IS effectiveness and the continued emphasis on primarily macro-level financial measures for determining the effectiveness of IS.
- Malhotra, Y., IS Productivity And Outsourcing Policy: A Conceptual Framework and Empirical Analysis, Proceedings of the Inaugural Americas Conference on Information Systems, August 1995, pp. 142-144.
(Americas Conference on Information Systems (Managerial Papers))
This paper proposes an integrative conceptual framework for analyzing the interrelationships between IS outsourcing policy, the business and financial strategy considerations and IS productivity. The model was operationalized by using factor analysis and stepwise regression analyses and tested using the 100 most effective users of information technology.
- Malhotra, Y., An Analogy to a Competitive Intelligence Program: Role of Measurement in Organizational Research
(Online Working Paper)
This paper uses Competitive Intelligence Program as an analogy for explaining the critical aspects of measurement in organizational research. A conceptual model of Competitive Intelligence Program is developed based on extant practitioner literature. Key aspects of this model are then used for defining the 'critical ingredients' of measurement in organizational research: constructs, validity, and reliability, as well as their interrelationships.
- Malhotra, Y., On Science, Scientific Method And Evolution Of Scientific Thought
(Online Working Paper)
With reference to the [scientific] process of creating "true" and "objective" knowledge, it is suggested that the 'scientific' approaches aren't foolproof. Furthermore, it is argued that even the tentative, partial, and probabilistic knowledge of which we are capable, can help improve social life and affect social policy. Various existing philosophies of the scientific process of knowledge creation are reviewed and contrasted and an informed perspective is developed for conducting scientific research that benefits societies and affects social policy.
- Malhotra, Y., et al. National Information Infrastructure: Myths, Metaphors And Realities
(Online Working Paper)
This paper represents one of the first initiatives to integratively review the key issues and principles that underlie the concept of the NII, the primary stakeholders participating in its implementation, the current status of these issues and the future implications for education, business, industry and government. By providing an integrative perspective of such issues, this article is expected to inform the study of electronic communication and information exchange.
- Malhotra, Y.,Competitive Intelligence Programs: An Overview
(Online Draft Document)
Covers the key concepts of Competitive Intelligence (CI) programs as applicable to modern organizations. Suggests how to determine CI needs and how to define the role of Organization's internal CI unit. Also provides an explanation of methods and methodologies for a CI program; the tools and techniques relevant to CI; threats from competitors; and the hazards of CI information.
Many theory development and research related publications not listed here are referenced in the more recent publications and may be found listed on this page. Each of the articles is motivated by deep insights into information systems and knowledge management practices and tries to either shatter existing myths or fundamentally influence both theoretical and managerial understanding of critical issues based upon solid analysis of both theory and practices. Please check your research library or online research databases such as ABIInform and ProQuest to access those articles.
Additional Readings Related to Global Risk Management Network's Framework are listed below.
- Malhotra, Y., 200 Articles on Developing Successful Knowledge Driven Organizations, Global Risk Management Network.
New knowledge is created in the process of conversations and 'dialog' that surface assumptions and facilitate creation of new meanings. These two hundred or so thoughts represent the developing mosaic of the "New" Knowledge Management emerging from the process of Global Risk Management Network's communication with its virtual community of practice, The Knowledge Management Think Tank. As many of these thoughts turn the mainstream theory and 'best practices' on their head, they are aptly characterized as 'out-of-box thinking'.
- Knowledge Management Depends Upon Acceptance and Effective Utilization of the Technologies
"Buying a typewriter does not make one a better writer. Similarly, just buying new information technologies does not make an organization better at managing knowledge. What is critical is acceptance and effective utilization of the technologies."
- The Human Denominator in Knowledge Management "The key issue is not about the latest information technologies, but whether those technologies are used within, and for facilitating, a culture of information sharing, relationship building and trust."
- Knowledge Management - The Evolution of Man and Machine
"The new business model in the Information Age is marked by fundamental, not incremental change. Businesses can't plan long-term; instead, they must shift to a more flexible 'anticipation of surprise' model. Thus it is impossible to build a system that predicts who the right person at the right time even is, let alone what constitutes the right information."
- Knowledge Management: New Wisdom or Passing Fad? "There's been a growing realization that investments in information technology haven't paid off in performance. There's been too much emphasis on treating people as passive recipients of technology and not enough emphasis on individual enterprise. The key to success is not [just] the system but what people make of it."